Understanding Printer Terminology "مصطلحات فنية"حفظ و فهم كويس أوىPrinter The physical device: that performs the printing. This device is usually a printer, but it can also be a fax device or a plotter.
Logical printer The software configuration: that is created in Windows XP and is represented by an icon in the Printers And Faxes window. The logical printer controls the printer’s configuration and the way in which Windows sends documents to the printer.
Printer driver The software driver that contains printer-specific information. The printer driver is used by the Graphical Device Interface (GDI) to render print jobs.
Print job A document that Windows has prepared for printing. Print jobs wait in a printer’s print queue until it is their turn to be printed. While a print job is waiting in the queue, users can manage or delete the print job.
Graphical Device Interface A Windows component that creates print jobs by interpreting document information from an application and combining it with printer information that is obtained from the printer driver. This process is called rendering.
Print server A computer or other network device that has a printer physically attached to it and shares that printer with the network. When a user’s computer that is running Windows XP shares a locally attached printer with the network, the user’s computer is referred to as the print server.
Print spooling The process of saving a print job to the hard disk before sending it to the printer. The process increases user productivity because after the job has been spooled, the application is released, and the user can continue working while the printing process continues in the background. Print spooling also ensures that print jobs will be saved in the event of a computer, application, or printer failure. In addition, when a client is printing to a printer on the network, print spooling also manages the routing of the print job from the client to the appropriate print server.
Spool directory The folder to which print documents are spooled. This is %System_root%\System32\Spool\Printers by default.
Print spooler The Windows operating system service that controls the print spooling process. The file Winspool.drv is the client-side spooler, and Spoolsv.exe is the server-side spooler.
Print router When a user prints to a network printer, the print router locates a remote print provider that can service the print job’s protocol. The file Spoolss.exe contains the print router.
Remote print provider A service that can forward jobs to remote print servers. The remote print provider exists on the client-side of the printing process (“remote” refers to the physical location of the printer).
Local print provider A Windows service that receives print jobs, spools them to the hard disk, and keeps track of job information while the job is in the print queue. The local print provider exists on the server-side of the printing process (“local” refers to the physical location of the printer). The local print provider sends a print job through the print processor and separator page processors and then forwards the job to the appropriate port monitor. The local print provider is contained in the Localspl.dll file. You will learn more about local and remote print providers in the section “Understanding the Printing Process,” later in this lesson.
Print processor Software that makes any necessary modifications to the print job, and then calls on the GDI to further render the job, if necessary. Windows XP includes Winprint as its only print processor. Winprint is included in the Localspl.dll file.
Printer pool A single logical printer configured for multiple printers. Printer pools allow you to divide the printing workload among several printers of the same manufacturer and model.
Separator page processor Software that adds separator pages between print jobs as required. A separator page is a page that indicates the name of the document and time of printing. Separator pages help users distinguish between different documents on printers in which multiple documents are routinely printed.
Port monitor Software that controls communication with the ports to which printers are attached. The local port monitor (included in Localspl.dll) controls parallel and serial ports where a printer might be attached. The standard port monitor controls communication with network printers using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol, such as Hewlett-Packard printers containing JetDirect network adapters. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) port monitor is used when Internet printing is enabled.
Understanding Print Job FormatsRAW Ready to be printed, no further processing required. Most non-Windows applications generate print jobs in RAW format.
When a print job is created, the print spooler looks at the format of the print job to determine whether the print job requires further processing by the print processor. Print job formats include the following:
RAW [FF appended] Same as the RAW format, except that it requires a formfeed character to be appended to the end of the print job before sending it to the printer. This format ensures that the last page of the job is ejected from the printer.
RAW [FF auto] Same as RAW format, but checks to see whether a form-feed character exists at the end of the print job. If not, a form-feed character is added.
EMF Enhanced Metafile (EMF) format is a device-independent print job format that can be created much more quickly than RAW format jobs. The application that requested printing is released faster, allowing the user more productive work time. Processing continues in the background. EMF documents are sent to the print processor and GDI for further rendering into RAW format prior to printing. Most Windows applications generate EMF format jobs.
TEXT American National Standards Institute (ANSI) text data. The print processor and GDI further process the data. The text is printed in the printer’s default font.
Configuring Advanced Printer PropertiesAvailability By default, a printer is available 24 hours a day. You can limit the hours that a printer is available by selecting the Available From option on the Advanced tab and entering a time range.
The Advanced tab of a printer’s Properties dialog box allows you to configure features associated with the way the printer handles documents. These features vary from printer to printer, depending on the features associated with the particular printer, but you should be aware of a few important settings:
Priority The printer Priority option allows you to define a priority for this printer, ranging from 1 to 99 (the higher the number, the higher the printer’s priority). Priority comes into effect only if you have multiple logical printers defined for a single printer. For example, you can create two logical printers, each printing to the same printer. You can name one logical printer HIGHPRIORITY and assign a priority of 99. You can name the other logical printer LOWPRIORITY and assign a priority of 1. Documents printed to the HIGHPRIORITY logical printer always take precedence over documents printed to the LOWPRIORITY logical printer. Exam Tip
! Exam Tip you can configure multiple logical printers for a single printer to control how the printer is used in different circumstances or by different users. You can also create a printer pool to configure multiple printers for a single logical printer.Spooling Select the Spool Print Documents So The Program Finishes Printing Faster to enable printer spooling. Select Print Directly To The Printer to disable spooling. If spooling is enabled, you need to decide whether you want the document to be spooled in its entirety before printing (the best option for remote printers) or to start printing immediately upon receiving the first page (the best option for local printers).
Hold Mismatched Documents A mismatched document is a print document that requires a different type of paper than that which is currently installed in the printer. Selecting the Hold Mismatched Documents option causes the spooler to check the current printer setup against the document setup before sending the document to the printer. This prevents mismatched documents from blocking the queue. For example, many printers do not have envelope trays and require envelopes to be fed manually. If a user prints an envelope, someone must be at the printer to feed the envelope through so that the job can complete. If no one is at the printer to feed the envelope, the print queue is blocked until someone either feeds the envelope or deletes the print job.
Print Spooled Documents First When this option is disabled, the spooler determines which document to print next based only on the document’s priority and the time the document arrived in the queue. Also, the spooler prints jobs that are completely spooled before jobs that are in the process of being spooled, even if the completely spooled job has a lower priority. This is intended to improve printer efficiency by preventing the printer from sitting idle while waiting for a high-priority job to be completely spooled.
Keep Printed Documents Configures the spooler to not delete documents after they have been printed. This makes it easy to resubmit a document to the queue. Print documents need to be manually deleted. It is important that the jobs are deleted when no longer needed, because they take up disk space on the hard disk that contains the spool directory.
Enable Advanced Printing Features Activates EMF spooling and enables printer features such as Page Order, Pages Per Sheet, and other printer-specific features. Advanced printing features are enabled by default and should remain enabled unless you have problems with the printer. EMF spooling can sometimes cause compatibility issues and therefore should be disabled as part of the troubleshooting process.
Printing Defaults Configures default document settings for all users of the printer. These settings include such options as orientation (portrait or landscape), page order (front-to-back or back-to-front), number of pages printed per sheet of paper, and paper source.
Print Processor Configures the print processor and default data type. Recall that the print processor is responsible for processing print documents into a format that is suitable to be sent to the printer, and Windows XP contains only the Winprint processor by default. The default print processor and data types are suitable for the vast majority of printing, and you should not change them unless you have an application that specifies the need for a different print processor or additional data type.
Separator Page Separates one print job from the next. In some cases, the separator page contains information about the print document and the user who sent it. In other cases, the separator page contains printer commands that can switch a printer between different print modes, such as Postscript and Hewlett Packard’s Printer Control Language (PCL).