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الموضوع: استفسار:شرح STP بالتفصيل (عنوان معدل)

  1. #1
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    استفسار:شرح STP بالتفصيل (عنوان معدل)



    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله

    أنا بدرس منهج السويتش لل CCNP وعندي مشكلة في ال STP

    ياريت يا شباب اللى فاهم ال STP وايه الفرق بين (ٍٍ+STP , PVST , PVST +, Rapid- Pvst) لأني قريتها من سيسكو ومن منتديات عربية واجنبية وبرده مش فاهم ولا مستوعبها ، وازاي في الواقع العملي بتستخدم


    مشكورين

  2. #2
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    رد: مش فاهم ال STP .. انا جاي منتدى ال ccie عشان اكيد انتو فاهمينها

    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
    اتمنى كتابت الموضوع في القسم المناسب
    --------------
    STP هي ال CSTP ودي العاديه 802.1d
    RSTP ودي القللنا فيها الوقت
    PVST ودي العملنا ال STP على كل VLAN
    Rapid-PVST ودي العملنا RSTP على كل VLAN
    + يعني بتدعم ال 802.1q

    واتفضل الملخص ده من اعدادي
    انشاء الله يفيدك
    واي سؤال انا تحت امرك
    ------------------------------------
    Spanning Tree
    -802.1D
    Broadcast storm: loop until shut the path.
    Flooding: Forward broadcasts and multicasts out all ports except the one in which send it.
    STP must select:
    - one root bridge
    - one root port per non root bridge
    - one designated port per network segment

    Root Bridge
    - Lowest Bridge ID (BID): priority and MAC address

    Root Port
    - Lowest path cost to the root bridge.
    - Lowest bridge ID (BID).
    - Lowest sender port ID (PID): f 0/1 best f 0/2 (NOTE: SENDER)

    Remember:
    - Bridge Priority: 2 byte 0-->65,535 by default 32,768
    (or 32,768 plus the VLAN ID, if the extended system ID is enabled
    4-bit priority, plus a 12-bit VLAN ID, system ID value= VID)
    config)# spanning-tree extend system-id

    - Port priority
    - Path cost: between the bridge to root

    STP Costs:
    10 Mb/s Ethernet --> 100
    100 Mb/s Fast Ethernet --> 19+
    1 Gbps Giga Ethernet --> 4
    10 Gbps 10 Giga Ethernet --> 2
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDU)
    TCN (Topology Change Notification)
    There are 2 types of BPDU:
    - (Configuration BPDU) send every 2 seconds from the root toward the downstream switches
    * During election.
    * Maintain connectivity between switches.
    * Send timer information from the root.

    - (TCN BPDU) send from downstream to root switch when:
    * Link failure.
    * A port starts forwarding.
    * The switch receives TCN from neighbor.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Per-VLAN Spanning-Tree (PVST+) or RPVST+
    -it’s enabling by default in Cisco’s switch (only Cisco)
    - Each vlan has BID, root bridge, root port and so on ……..
    - Support 802.1q but the pvst don’t
    - Work with RSTP but the PVST work individual(CSTP)
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Configuration Spanning Tree
    config)# spanning-tree vlan 5,100-200 priority 100
    config)# spanning-tree vlan 5 root primary | secondary
    -if)# spanning-tree cost 1 ( Access port)
    -if)# spanning-tree vlan 7 cost 10 (Trunk port)
    CONFIG)#SPANNING-TREE MODE PVST

    Verification
    show spanning-tree
    show spanning-tree vlan 9 (special vlan)
    show spanning-tree interface fa 0/1 ( special interface)
    show spanning-tree bridge brief
    show interface trunk (witch vlans are allowed and passes)
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    RSTP (Rapid STP)
    - 802.1w--> after 2004 802.1D ( in exam is stilling 802.1w)
    - Discarding= Blocking, Disabled and listening.
    - Discarding to forwarding if not receive 3 BPDU
    - Alternate port= Backup to the root port.
    - Backup port= Backup to designated port.
    - Edge port= connected to end user
    - Disabled port= not used in Rapid STP
    - BPDU: each switches originates BPDU.
    - RSTP similar BackboneFast: accept BPDU if there another path to root it become alternative path.
    - Edge port: same as Portfast ports (automatically)--> if receive BPDU the switch will send TCN BPDU
    - Backup and Alternate ports: similar UplinkFast ports is forwarding if not received BPDU from neighbor.
    - config)# spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Multiple Spanning Tree (MST)
    -802.1S
    -Root for group of VLANs
    -stop pvst+ or rpvst+
    - all switch belong the same region must apply MST

    config)#spanning-tree mode mst
    config)#spanning-tree mst configuration
    -mst)#name AHMED (same region)
    -mst)#revision 1 (same)
    -mst)#instance 3 vlan 1-100
    config)#spanning-tree mst 3 priority 200

    show spanning-tree mst

    NOW this switch work with multi-vlan as one vlan
    and the vlan 1 to 100 have priority 200
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    STP to Protected the network

    PortFast (benefit in CST and RSTP)
    -Cisco-proprietary, Speed up network, Access port.
    - STP not block --> shut to on is forwarding immediately.
    config)# spanning-tree portfast default
    then
    -if)# no spanning-tree portfast ( in trunk port)
    OR
    -if)# spanning-tree portfast (in access port)
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------
    UplinkFast (benefit in CST)
    - Identify backup ports for root port (direct switch)
    -called uplink group
    - if root fails one of group be unblock
    -bypass listing and learning stages
    config)#spanning-tree uplinkfast
    -------------------------------------------------------------------
    BackboneFast (benefit in CST)
    - detect alternative path to root (indirect switch)
    - Inferior BPDUs are sent from a designated bridge that has lost its connection to the root.
    - Normally the switch wait MAX age but with BackboneFast If the inferior BPDU was received on
    * Blocked port, the root port and blocked ports are considered alternate.
    * Root port, all blocked ports are considered alternates.
    * Root port and there are no blocked ports, the switch assumes it has lost
    connectivity with the root and advertises itself as root.
    config)# spanning-tree backbonefast
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    BPDU Guard
    - prevents loops if another switch attached to portfast port.
    - error-disabled if received BPDU.
    config)# spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default (all portfast interfaces)
    - if)# spanning-tree bpduguard enable
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    BPDU Filtering
    - prevent loops if another switch attached to portfast port.
    -don’t send or receive bpdu if receive it, disable portfast and work normally STP
    config)# spanning-tree portfast bpdufilter default
    -if)# spanning-tree bpdufilter enable
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Root Guard
    - prevent other switch to be root.
    - root-inconsistent state meant receive BPDU and not pass traffic
    -if)# spanning-tree guard root
    show spanning-tree inconsistent
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Unidirectional--> that link can be send data but not receive it.

    UDLD (Unidirectional Link Detection)
    - if Physical connection broken (benefit)
    - send hello out to interface (ping)
    - Two Models: normal and aggressive.
    -Normal: is undetermined state if hellos are not return.
    -Aggressive: is error-disabled if unidirectional link.
    - specific fiber interface
    config)# udld enable | aggressive ( for all fiber interface) recommend
    -if)# udld port aggressive
    #udld reset (to re-enable all interface shutdown by udld)
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Loop Guard
    - if link not receive BPDU.
    - state is loop inconsistent.
    - more effective with udld
    config)# spanning-tree loopguard default
    -if)# spanning-tree guard loop
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    This process of forwarding a single frame around and around between two switches is
    known as a bridging loop.
    .
    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة Eng.AhmedAmin ; 25-02-2012 الساعة 20:22

  3. #3
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    رد: مش فاهم ال STP .. انا جاي منتدى ال ccie عشان اكيد انتو فاهمينها

    نزل فيديوهات البشمهندس معاذ هوه شارحها بامتياز في قسم ال CCNP

  4. #4
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    رد: مش فاهم ال STP .. انا جاي منتدى ال ccie عشان اكيد انتو فاهمينها

    اقتباس المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة Eng.AhmedAmin مشاهدة المشاركة
    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
    اتمنى كتابت الموضوع في القسم المناسب
    --------------
    STP هي ال CSTP ودي العاديه 802.1d
    RSTP ودي القللنا فيها الوقت
    PVST ودي العملنا ال STP على كل VLAN
    Rapid-PVST ودي العملنا RSTP على كل VLAN
    + يعني بتدعم ال 802.1q

    واتفضل الملخص ده من اعدادي
    انشاء الله يفيدك
    واي سؤال انا تحت امرك
    ------------------------------------
    Spanning Tree
    -802.1D
    Broadcast storm: loop until shut the path.
    Flooding: Forward broadcasts and multicasts out all ports except the one in which send it.
    STP must select:
    - one root bridge
    - one root port per non root bridge
    - one designated port per network segment

    Root Bridge
    - Lowest Bridge ID (BID): priority and MAC address

    Root Port
    - Lowest path cost to the root bridge.
    - Lowest bridge ID (BID).
    - Lowest sender port ID (PID): f 0/1 best f 0/2 (NOTE: SENDER)

    Remember:
    - Bridge Priority: 2 byte 0-->65,535 by default 32,768
    (or 32,768 plus the VLAN ID, if the extended system ID is enabled
    4-bit priority, plus a 12-bit VLAN ID, system ID value= VID)
    config)# spanning-tree extend system-id

    - Port priority
    - Path cost: between the bridge to root

    STP Costs:
    10 Mb/s Ethernet --> 100
    100 Mb/s Fast Ethernet --> 19+
    1 Gbps Giga Ethernet --> 4
    10 Gbps 10 Giga Ethernet --> 2
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDU)
    TCN (Topology Change Notification)
    There are 2 types of BPDU:
    - (Configuration BPDU) send every 2 seconds from the root toward the downstream switches
    * During election.
    * Maintain connectivity between switches.
    * Send timer information from the root.

    - (TCN BPDU) send from downstream to root switch when:
    * Link failure.
    * A port starts forwarding.
    * The switch receives TCN from neighbor.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Per-VLAN Spanning-Tree (PVST+) or RPVST+
    -it’s enabling by default in Cisco’s switch (only Cisco)
    - Each vlan has BID, root bridge, root port and so on ……..
    - Support 802.1q but the pvst don’t
    - Work with RSTP but the PVST work individual(CSTP)
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Configuration Spanning Tree
    config)# spanning-tree vlan 5,100-200 priority 100
    config)# spanning-tree vlan 5 root primary | secondary
    -if)# spanning-tree cost 1 ( Access port)
    -if)# spanning-tree vlan 7 cost 10 (Trunk port)
    CONFIG)#SPANNING-TREE MODE PVST

    Verification
    show spanning-tree
    show spanning-tree vlan 9 (special vlan)
    show spanning-tree interface fa 0/1 ( special interface)
    show spanning-tree bridge brief
    show interface trunk (witch vlans are allowed and passes)
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    RSTP (Rapid STP)
    - 802.1w--> after 2004 802.1D ( in exam is stilling 802.1w)
    - Discarding= Blocking, Disabled and listening.
    - Discarding to forwarding if not receive 3 BPDU
    - Alternate port= Backup to the root port.
    - Backup port= Backup to designated port.
    - Edge port= connected to end user
    - Disabled port= not used in Rapid STP
    - BPDU: each switches originates BPDU.
    - RSTP similar BackboneFast: accept BPDU if there another path to root it become alternative path.
    - Edge port: same as Portfast ports (automatically)--> if receive BPDU the switch will send TCN BPDU
    - Backup and Alternate ports: similar UplinkFast ports is forwarding if not received BPDU from neighbor.
    - config)# spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Multiple Spanning Tree (MST)
    -802.1S
    -Root for group of VLANs
    -stop pvst+ or rpvst+
    - all switch belong the same region must apply MST

    config)#spanning-tree mode mst
    config)#spanning-tree mst configuration
    -mst)#name AHMED (same region)
    -mst)#revision 1 (same)
    -mst)#instance 3 vlan 1-100
    config)#spanning-tree mst 3 priority 200

    show spanning-tree mst

    NOW this switch work with multi-vlan as one vlan
    and the vlan 1 to 100 have priority 200
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    STP to Protected the network

    PortFast (benefit in CST and RSTP)
    -Cisco-proprietary, Speed up network, Access port.
    - STP not block --> shut to on is forwarding immediately.
    config)# spanning-tree portfast default
    then
    -if)# no spanning-tree portfast ( in trunk port)
    OR
    -if)# spanning-tree portfast (in access port)
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------
    UplinkFast (benefit in CST)
    - Identify backup ports for root port (direct switch)
    -called uplink group
    - if root fails one of group be unblock
    -bypass listing and learning stages
    config)#spanning-tree uplinkfast
    -------------------------------------------------------------------
    BackboneFast (benefit in CST)
    - detect alternative path to root (indirect switch)
    - Inferior BPDUs are sent from a designated bridge that has lost its connection to the root.
    - Normally the switch wait MAX age but with BackboneFast If the inferior BPDU was received on
    * Blocked port, the root port and blocked ports are considered alternate.
    * Root port, all blocked ports are considered alternates.
    * Root port and there are no blocked ports, the switch assumes it has lost
    connectivity with the root and advertises itself as root.
    config)# spanning-tree backbonefast
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
    BPDU Guard
    - prevents loops if another switch attached to portfast port.
    - error-disabled if received BPDU.
    config)# spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default (all portfast interfaces)
    - if)# spanning-tree bpduguard enable
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    BPDU Filtering
    - prevent loops if another switch attached to portfast port.
    -don’t send or receive bpdu if receive it, disable portfast and work normally STP
    config)# spanning-tree portfast bpdufilter default
    -if)# spanning-tree bpdufilter enable
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Root Guard
    - prevent other switch to be root.
    - root-inconsistent state meant receive BPDU and not pass traffic
    -if)# spanning-tree guard root
    show spanning-tree inconsistent
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Unidirectional--> that link can be send data but not receive it.

    UDLD (Unidirectional Link Detection)
    - if Physical connection broken (benefit)
    - send hello out to interface (ping)
    - Two Models: normal and aggressive.
    -Normal: is undetermined state if hellos are not return.
    -Aggressive: is error-disabled if unidirectional link.
    - specific fiber interface
    config)# udld enable | aggressive ( for all fiber interface) recommend
    -if)# udld port aggressive
    #udld reset (to re-enable all interface shutdown by udld)
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Loop Guard
    - if link not receive BPDU.
    - state is loop inconsistent.
    - more effective with udld
    config)# spanning-tree loopguard default
    -if)# spanning-tree guard loop
    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    This process of forwarding a single frame around and around between two switches is
    known as a bridging loop.
    .
    أخي العزيز

    لو ينفع تدينا الشورتكاتس اللي أنت عملها نبقي شكرين فضلك انا بتكلم عموماً مش STPs بس

  5. #5
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    Dec 2006
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    رد: مش فاهم ال STP .. انا جاي منتدى ال ccie عشان اكيد انتو فاهمينها

    Eng.AhmedAmin جزاك الله خير شكرا على الاهتمام

  6. #6
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    رد: استفسار:شرح STP بالتفصيل (عنوان معدل)



    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
    انا فعلا كنت ناوي اضعهم في المنتدى
    ولكن
    هي محتاجه كثير جدا من التظبيط
    عشان تكون واضحة للفهم

    غير انها مش كامله يعني انا عامل 3 ارباع ال ccna
    ونصف ال ccnp

    المشكله انا مشغول الفتره دي جدا
    فخلال سنه ان شاء الله
    هكون انتهيت من تلخيص منهج ال ccna و ال ccnp
    و ال ccna voice and wireless واحتمال يكون ال ccie
    في جميع الاحوال
    انا هضغط الملف العندي وابعتهولك من غير تظبيط
    وان شاء الله تجد فيه الفائده

    وشكرا جدا لثقتك العاليه :-))
    بس الكلام الغير واضح اتمنى ان لا يرفع ضغطك :-))

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