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Chapter 1 internetworking
Remember the possible causes of LAN traffic congestion. Too many hosts in a broadcast domain, broadcast storms, multicasting, and low bandwidth are all possible causes of LAN traffic congestion.
Understand the difference between a collision domain and a broadcast domain. Collision domain is an Ethernet term used to describe a network collection of devices in which one particular device sends a packet on a network segment, forcing every other device on that same segment to pay attention to it. On a broadcast domain, a set of all devices on a network segment hear all broadcasts sent on that segment.
Understand the difference between a hub, a bridge, a switch, and a router. Hubs create one collision domain and one broadcast domain. Bridges break up collision domains but create one large broadcast domain. They use hardware addresses to filter the network. Switches are really just multiple port bridges with more intelligence. They break up collision domains but create one large broadcast domain by default. Switches use hardware addresses to filter the network. Routers break up broadcast domains (and collision domains) and use logical addressing to filter the network.
Remember the difference between connection-oriented and connectionless network services. Connection-oriented services use acknowledgments and flow control to create a reliable session. More overhead is used than in a connectionless network service. Connectionless services are used to send data with no acknowledgments or flow control. This is considered unreliable.
Remember the OSI layers. You must remember the seven layers of the OSI model and what function each layer provides. The Application, Presentation, and Session layers are upper layers and are responsible for communicating from a user interface to an application. The Transport layer provides segmentation, sequencing, and virtual circuits. The Network layer provides logical network addressing and routing through an internetwork. The Data Link layer provides framing and placing of data on the network medium. The Physical layer is responsible for taking 1s and 0s and encoding them into a digital signal for transmission on the network segment.
Remember the types of Ethernet cabling and when you would use them. The three types of cables that can be created from an Ethernet cable are straight-through (to connect a PC’s or a router’s Ethernet interface to a hub or switch), crossover (to connect hub to hub, hub to switch, switch to switch, or PC to PC), and rolled (for a console connection from a PC to a router or switch).
Understand how to connect a console cable from a PC to a router and start HyperTerminal.Take a rolled cable and connect it from the COM port of the host to the console port of a router. Start HyperTerminal and set the BPS to 9600 and flow control to None.
Remember the three layers in the Cisco three-layer model. The three layers in the Cisco hierarchical model are the core, distribution, and access layers.
Chapter 2 introduction to TCP/IP
Remember the Process/Application layer protocols. Telnet is a terminal emulation program that allows you to log into a remote host and run programs. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a connection-oriented service that allows you to transfer files. Trivial FTP (TFTP) is a connectionless file transfer program. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a send-mail program.
Remember the Host-to-Host layer protocols. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a connection-oriented protocol that provides reliable network service by using acknowledgments and flow control. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless protocol that provides low overhead and is considered unreliable.
Remember the Internet layer protocols. Internet Protocol (IP) is a connectionless protocol that provides network address and routing through an internetwork. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) finds a hardware address from a known IP address. Reverse ARP (RARP) finds an IP address from a known hardware address. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) provides diagnostics and destination unreachable messages.
Remember the Class A range. The IP range for a Class A network is 1–126. This provides 8bits of network addressing and 24 bits of host addressing by default.
Remember the Class B range. The IP range for a Class B network is 128–191. Class B addressing provides 16 bits of network addressing and 16 bits of host addressing by default.
Remember the Class C range. The IP range for a Class C network is 192–223. Class C addressing provides 24 bits of network addressing and 8 bits of host addressing by default.
Remember the Private IP ranges.
Class A private address range is 10.0.0.0 through 10.255.255.255.
Class B private address range is 172.16.0.0 through 172.31.255.255.
Class C private address range is 192.168.0.0 through 192.168.255.255.
Chaptr 3 subnetting
Remember the steps to subnet in your head. Understand how IP addressing and subnetting work. First, determine your block size by using the 256-subnet mask math. Then count your subnets and determine the broadcast address of each subnet—it is always the number right before the next subnet. Your valid hosts are the numbers between the subnet address and the broadcast address.
Understand the various block sizes. This is an important part of understanding IP addressing and subnetting. The valid block sizes are always 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, etc. You can determine your block size by using the 256-subnet mask math.
Remember the four diagnostic steps. The four simple steps that Cisco recommends for troubleshooting are ping the loopback address, ping the NIC, ping the default gateway, and ping the remote device.
You must be able to find and fix an IP addressing problem. Once you go through the four troubleshooting steps that Cisco recommends, you must be able to determine the IP addressing problem by drawing out the network and finding the valid and invalid hosts addressed in your network.
Understand the troubleshooting tools that you can use from your host and a Cisco router ping 127.0.0.1 tests your local IP stack. tracert is a Windows DOS command to track the path a packet takes through an internetwork to a destination. Cisco routers use the command traceroute, or just trace for short. Don’t confuse the Windows and Cisco commands. Although they produce the same output, they don’t work from the same prompts. ipconfig /all will display your PC network configuration from a DOS prompt, and arp -a (again from a DOS prompt) will display IP-to-MAC-address mapping on a Windows PC.
Chapter 4 cisco’s IOS
Understand what happens (and the sequence in which it happens) when you power on a router.When you first bring up a Cisco router, it will run a power-on self-test (POST), and if that passes, it will look for and load the Cisco IOS from flash memory, if a file is present. The IOS then proceeds to load and looks for a valid configuration in NVRAM called the startup-config. If no file is present in NVRAM, the router will go into setup mode.
Remember what setup mode provides. Setup mode is automatically started if a router boots and no startup-config is in NVRAM. You can also bring up setup mode by typing setup from privileged mode. Setup provides a minimum amount of configuration in an easy format for someone who does not understand how to configure a Cisco router from the command line.
Understand the difference between user mode and privileged mode. User mode provides a command-line interface with very few available commands by default. User mode does not allow the configuration to be viewed or changed. Privileged mode allows a user to both view and change the configuration of a router. You can enter privileged mode by typing the command enable and entering the enable password or enable secret password, if set.
Remember what the command show version provides. The show version command will provide basic configuration for the system hardware as well as the software version, the names and sources of configuration files, the config-register setting, and the boot images.
Remember how to set the hostname of a router. The command sequence to set the hostname of a router is as follows: Enable config t hostname Todd
Remember the difference between the enable password and enable secret password. Both of these passwords are used to gain access into privileged mode. However, the enable secret password is newer and is always encrypted by default. Also, if you set the enable password and then set the enable secret, only the enable secret will be used.
Remember how to set the enable secret on a router. To set the enable secret, you use the command enable secret. Do not use enable secret password password or you will set your password to password password. Here is an example:
Enable config t enable secret todd
Remember how to set the console password on a router. To set the console password, use the following sequence:
Enable config t line console 0 login password todd
Remember how to set the Telnet password on a router. To set the Telnet password, the sequence is as follows:
Enable config t line vty 0 4 password todd login
Understand how to troubleshoot a serial link problem. If you type show interface serial 0 and see down, line protocol is down, this will be considered a Physical layer problem. If you see it as up, line protocol is down, then you have a Data Link layer problem.
Understand how to verify your router with the show interfaces command If you type show interfaces, you can view the statistics for the interfaces on the router, verify whether the interfaces are shut down, and see the IP address of each interface.
Chapter 5 managing a cisco internetwork
Remember the various configuration register commands and settings. The 0x2102 setting is the default on all Cisco routers and tells the router to look in NVRAM for the boot sequence. 0x2101 tells the router to boot from ROM, and 0x2142 tells the router to not load the startup-config in NVRAM to provide password recovery.
Remember how to back up an IOS image. By using the privileged-mode command copy flash tftp, you can back up a file from flash memory to a TFTP (network) server.
Remember how to restore or upgrade an IOS image. By using the privileged-mode command copy tftp flash, you can restore or upgrade a file from a TFTP (network) server to flash memory.
Remember what you must complete before you back up an IOS image to a network server.Make sure that you can access the network server, ensure that the network server has adequate space for the code image, and verify the file naming and path requirement.
Remember how to save the configuration of a router. There are a couple of ways to do this, but the most common, as well as most tested, method is copy running-config startup-config.
Remember how to erase the configuration of a router. Type the privileged-mode command erase startup-config and reload the router.
Understand when to use CDP. Cisco Discovery Protocol can be used to help you document as well as troubleshoot your network.
Remember what the output from the show cdp neighbors command shows. The show cdp neighbors command provides the following information: device ID, local interface, holdtime, capability, platform, and port ID (remote interface).
Understand how to telnet into a router and keep your connection but return to your originating console. If you telnet to a router or switch, you can end the connection by typing exit at any time. However, if you want to keep your connection to a remote device but still come back to your original router console, you can press the Ctrl+Shift+6 key combination, release it, and then press X.
Remember the command to verify your Telnet sessions. The command show sessions will provide you with information about all the sessions your router has with other routers.
Remember how to build a static host table on a router. By using the global configuration command ip host host_name ip_address, you can build a static host table on your router. You can apply multiple IP addresses against the same host entry.
Remember how to verify your host table on a router. You can verify the host table with the show hosts command.
Understand when to use the ping command. Packet Internet Groper (Ping) uses ICMP echo request and ICMP echo replies to verify an active IP address on a network.
Remember how to ping a valid host ID. You can ping an IP address from a router’s user mode or privileged mode but not from configuration mode. You must ping a valid address, such as 188.8.131.52.
Chapter 6 IP routing
Understand the basic IP routing process. You need to remember that the frame changes at each hop but that the packet is never changed or manipulated in any way until it reaches the destination device.
Understand that MAC addresses are always local. A MAC (hardware) address will only be used on a local LAN. It will never pass a router’s interface.
Understand that a frame carries a packet to only two places. A frame uses MAC (hardware) addresses to send a packet on a LAN. The frame will take the packet to either a host on the LAN or a router’s interface if the packet is destined for a remote network.
Understand how to configure RIP routing. To configure RIP routing, first you must be in global configuration mode and then you type the command router rip. Then you add all directly connected networks, making sure to use the classful address.
Remember how to verify RIP routing. The show ip route command will provide you with the contents of the routing table. An R on the left side of the table indicates a RIP-found route.
The debug ip rip command will show you RIP updates being sent and received on your router. If you see a route with a metric of 16, that route is considered down.
Remember the differences between RIPv1 and RIPv2. RIPv1 sends broadcasts every 30 seconds and has an AD of 120. RIPv2 sends multicasts (184.108.40.206) every 30 seconds and also has an AD of 120. RIPv2 sends subnet mask information with the route updates, which allows it to support classless networks and discontiguous networks. RIPv2 also supports authentication between routers and RIPv1 does not.
Chapter 7 EIGRP & OSPF
Know EIGRP features. EIGRP is a classless, advanced distance-vector protocol that supports IP, IPX, AppleTalk, and now IPv6. EIGRP uses a unique algorithm, called DUAL, to maintain route information and uses RTP to communicate with other EIGRP routers reliably.
Know how to configure EIGRP. Be able to configure basic EIGRP. This is configured the same as IGRP with classful addresses.
Know how to verify EIGRP operation. Know all of the EIGRP show commands and be familiar with their output and the interpretation of the main components of their output.
Compare OSPF and RIPv1. OSPF is a link-state protocol that supports VLSM and classless routing; RIPv1 is a distance-vector protocol that does not support VLSM and supports only classful routing.
Know how OSPF routers become neighbors and/or adjacent. OSPF routers become neighbors when each router sees the other’s Hello packets.
Know the different OSPF NBMA network types. There are five different OSPF network types that Cisco routers can be configured to support. Two of these are non-proprietary based (non-broadcast and point-to-multipoint) and three are Cisco proprietary (broadcast, point-to-point, and point-to-multipoint non-broadcast). Each network type is further characterized by how routers become adjacent and whether they require the election of a DR/BDR.
Be able to configure single-area OSPF. A minimal single-area configuration involves only two commands: router ospf process-id and network x.x.x.x y.y.y.y area Z.
Be able to verify the operation of OSPF. There are many show commands that provide use-ful details on OSPF, and it is useful to be completely familiar with the output of each: show ip ospf, show ip ospf database, show ip ospf interface, show ip ospf neighbor, and show ip protocols.
Chapter 8 switching and STP
Remember the three switch functions. Address learning, forward/filter decisions, and loop avoidance are the functions of a switch.
Remember the command show mac address-table. The command show mac address-table will show you the forward/filter table used on the LAN switch
Understand the main purpose of the Spanning Tree Protocol in a switched LAN. The main purpose of STP is to prevent switching loops in a network with redundant switched paths.
Remember the states of STP. The purpose of the blocking state is to prevent the use of looped paths. A port in listening state prepares to forward data frames without populating the MAC address table. A port in learning state populates the MAC address table but doesn’t forward data frames. A port in forwarding state sends and receives all data frames on the bridged port. Last, a port in the disabled state is virtually nonoperational.
Remember the command show spanning-tree. You must be familiar with the command show spanning-tree and how to determine who the root bridge is.
Chapter 9 virtual LANs
Understand the term frame tagging. Frame tagging refers to VLAN identification; this is what switches use to keep track of all those frames as they’re traversing a switch fabric. It’s how switches identify which frames belong to which VLANs.
Understand the ISL VLAN identification method. Inter-Switch Link (ISL) is a way of explicitly tagging VLAN information onto an Ethernet frame. This tagging information allows VLANs to be multiplexed over a trunk link through an external encapsulation method, which allows the switch to identify the VLAN membership of a frame over the link. ISL is a Cisco-proprietary frame-tagging method that can only be used with Cisco switches and routers.
Understand the 802.1Q VLAN identification method. This is a nonproprietary IEEE method of frame tagging. If you’re trunking between a Cisco switched link and a different brand of switch, you have to use 802.1Q for the trunk to work.
Remember how to set a trunk port on a 2960 switch. To set a port to trunking on a 2960, use the switchport mode trunk command.
Remember to check a switch port’s VLAN assignment when plugging in a new host. If you plug a new host into a switch, then you must verify the VLAN membership of that port. If the membership is different than what is needed for that host, the host will not be able to reach the needed network services, such as a workgroup server.
Understand the purpose and configuration of VTP VTP provides propagation of the VLAN database throughout your switched network. All switches must be in the same VTP domain.
Remember how to create a Cisco “router on a stick” to provide inter-VLAN communication.You can use a Cisco Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet interface to provide inter-VLAN routing. The switch port connected to the router must be a trunk port; then you must create virtual interfaces (subinterfaces) on the router port for each VLAN connecting. The hosts in each VLAN will use this subinterface address as their default gateway address.
Chapter 10 security
Remember the standard and extended IP access-list number ranges. The number ranges you can use to configure a standard IP access list are 1–99 and 1300–1999. The number ranges for an extended IP access list are 100–199 and 2000–2699.
Understand the term implicit deny. At the end of every access list is an implicit deny. What this means is that if a packet does not match any of the lines in the access list, then it will be discarded. Also, if you have nothing but deny statements in your list, the list will not permit any packets.
Understand the standard IP access-list configuration command. To configure a standard IP access list, use the access-list numbers 1–99 or 1300–1999 in global configuration mode. Choose permit or deny, then choose the source IP address you want to filter on using one of the three techniques covered in this chapter.
Understand the extended IP access-list configuration command. To configure an extended IP access list, use the access-list numbers 100–199 or 2000–2699 in global configuration mode. Choose permit or deny, the Network layer protocol field, the source IP address you want to filter on, the destination address you want to filter on, and finally the Transport layer port number (if selected).
Remember the command to verify an access list on a router interface. To see whether an access list is set on an interface and in which direction it is filtering, use the show ip interface command. This command will not show you the contents of the access list, merely which access lists are applied on the interface.
Remember the command to verify the access-list configuration. To see the configured access lists on your router, use the show access-list command. This command will not show you which interfaces have an access list set.
Chapter 11 NAT
Understand the term NAT. This may come as news to you, because I didn’t—okay, failed to—mention it earlier, but NAT has a few nicknames. In the industry, it’s referred to as network masquerading, IP-masquerading, and for those who are besieged with OCD and compelled to spell everything out, Native Address Translation. Whatever you want to dub it, basically, they all refer to the process of rewriting the source/destination addresses of IP packets when they go through a router or firewall. Just focus on the process that’s occurring and your understanding of it (i.e., the important part), and you’re on it for sure!
Remember the three methods of NAT. The three methods are static, dynamic, and overloading, which is also called Port Address Translation (PAT).
Understand static NAT. This type of NAT is designed to allow one-to-one mapping between local and global addresses.
Understand dynamic NAT. This version gives you the ability to map an unregistered IP address to a registered IP address from out of a pool of registered IP addresses.
Understand overloading. Overloading really is a form of dynamic NAT that maps multiple unregistered IP addresses to a single registered IP address—many-to-one—by using different ports. It’s also known as Port Address Translation (PAT).
Chapter 12 wireless
Understand the IEEE 802.11a specification. 802.11a runs in the 5GHz spectrum, and if you use the 802.11h extensions, you have 23 non-overlapping channels. 802.11a can run up to 54Mbps, but only if you are less than 50 feet from an access point.
Understand the IEEE 802.11b specification. IEEE 802.11b runs in the 2.4GHz range and has three non-overlapping channels. It can handle long distances, but with a maximum data rate of up to 11Mpbs.
Understand the IEEE 802.11g specification. IEEE 802.11g is 802.11b’s big brother and runs in the same 2.4GHz range, but it has a higher data rate of 54Mbps if you are less than 100 feet from an access point.
Chapter 13 IPv6
Understand why we need IPv6. Without IPv6, the world would be depleted of IP addresses.
Understand link-local. Link-local is like an IPv4 private IP address, but it can’t be routed at all, not even in your organization.
Understand unique local. This, like link-local, is like private IP addresses in IPv4 and cannot be routed to the Internet. However, the difference between link-local and unique local is that unique local can be routed within your organization or company.
Remember IPv6 addressing. IPv6 addressing is not like IPv4 addressing. IPv6 addressing has much more address space and is 128 bits long, represented in hexadecimal, unlike IPv4, which is only 32 bits long and represented in decimal.
Chapter 14 WAN
Remember the default serial encapsulation on Cisco routers. Cisco routers use a proprietary High-Level Data-Link Control (HDLC) encapsulation on all its serial links by default.
Understand the different Frame Relay encapsulations. Cisco uses two different Frame Relay encapsulation methods on its routers. Cisco is the default and means that the router is connected to a Cisco Frame Relay switch; Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) means that your router is connecting to anything but a Cisco Frame Relay switch.
Remember what the CIR is in Frame Relay. The CIR is the average rate, in bits per second, at which the Frame Relay switch agrees to transfer data.
Remember the commands for verifying Frame Relay. The show frame-relay lmi command will give you the LMI traffic statistics exchanged between the local router and the Frame Relay switch. The show frame pvc command will list all configured PVCs and DLCI numbers.
Remember the PPP Data Link layer protocols. The three Data Link layer protocols are Network Control Protocol (NCP), which defines the Network layer protocols; Link Control Protocol (LCP), a method of establishing, configuring, maintaining, and terminating the point-to-point connection; and High-Level Data-Link Control (HDLC), the MAC layer protocol that encapsulates the packets.
Remember the various type of serial WAN connections. The serial WAN connections that are most widely used are HDLC, PPP, and Frame Relay.
Understand the term virtual private network. You need to understand why and how to use a VPN between two sites.