النتائج 1 إلى 2 من 2

الموضوع: how is the cpu manufactured

  1. #1
    عضو
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Nov 2006
    المشاركات
    10
    معدل تقييم المستوى
    0

    how is the cpu manufactured



    السلام عليكم

    how is the cpu manufactured

    وشكراااااااا

  2. #2
    مشرف سابق
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Jul 2005
    المشاركات
    1,526
    معدل تقييم المستوى
    14

    رد: how is the cpu manufactured



    ربما هذه المقالة توضح



    little history will help our understanding of modern CPU's. In 1948, Bell Laboratories invented a solid state digital switch which soon replaced vacuum tubes used in very early computers. This solid state digital switch is known as a transistor. A transistor conducts variable amounts of electricity depending on the input current that is applied to it. It can act as a switch which can be switched off or on, symbolically storing a 0 or 1 respectively. This property is due to the use of a semiconductor material in the transistor, like doped Silicon. Solid state merely means that it has no moving parts. In 1959 Texas Instruments demonstrated that many transistors can be manufactured on a single surface making what is collectively called an integrated circuit (IC). Soon thousands of small components were integrated onto a single miniature wafer in a process called large scale integration (LSI). Many discrete LSI's were used in a single computer. Eventually millions of transistors were implemented in chips categorized as very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI). In 1971, Intel, then a memory manufacturer, made the 4004 CPU. It was the first microprocessor and integrated all the logic chips into a single 4-bit CPU.

    CPU's can be implemented with very fast and very expensive technology categorized as very high speed integrated circuits (VHSIC) which includes technology such as emitter-coupled logic (ECL) and GaAs based designs used in vector computers. However, this technology is very expensive to implement. Instead most modern CPU's use a VLSI design implemented in CMOS and BiCMOS designs such as the Intel x86 processors and the DEC Alpha. While these designs offer slower clock rates they are inexpensive to produce and hence larger numbers of transistors can be unutilized to add more intelligence and greater parallel performance and pipelining (See below).

    CPU's are manufactured in a complex process. Silicon is extracted from Silicon Dioxide and grown into giant crystals 8 inches in diameter. Thousands of processors can be made from a single crystal. These crystals are cut with a saw into hundreds of wafers 8 inches across and less than one millimeter thick. The wafers are carefully polished and chemically treated with a photosensitive material. Meanwhile a giant 3D map of the processor design is created. This map details the placement of each transistor and all devices and connecting conductors. Specific software packages are used which logically take this 3D map and convert it into discrete layers called masks. This is just like representing a building with a series of floor plans, each representing a story of the building. A mask is like a photographic negative. In a process called photolithography light is passed through the mask and projected onto the silicon just like light in an enlarger is passed through a photographic negative to create an image on a print substrate. The photosensitive material reacts to the light. Exposed material may be etched away with solvents and unexposed material may remain. The surface may be coated with new materials. The process is repeated for each of the series of masks until all layers of the processor based on the 3D map have been laid down. There are typically eight or more layers. Finally the 8 inch wafer is cut into separate processors. Each processor is about a third of an inch across. The final processor is packaged in a ceramic material or Plexiglas.

    The process of etching a layering used in most CPU's is called complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. All Intel CPU's use the CMOS process except very early 8088's and 8086's which used a non-metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) process and Pentium classic, Pentium overdrives and the Pentium Pro CPU's which used a bipolar CMOS process (BiCMOS).

    The detail of the channels etched into the wafers is as precise as 0.25 microns. Each generation of chips uses a smaller micron process packing more channels and hence more transistors into a smaller square area. Indeed, if each transistor is shrunk to one half the size on each side, then four transistors can fit in the same square area. Thus cutting the size in half will increase the number of transistors by a factor of four in the same square area of silicon.


    الرابط كامل : لاحظ الفقره في منتصف الصفحة لهذا الرابط :

    http://www.tdl.com/~netex/cpu/cpu.ht...20and%20BiCMOS)

    اما لو كنت اعرف شخصيا لصنعت معالج عرب بدلا من بنتيوم و اثلون :D

الكلمات الدلالية لهذا الموضوع

المفضلات

ضوابط المشاركة

  • لا تستطيع إضافة مواضيع جديدة
  • لا تستطيع الرد على المواضيع
  • لا تستطيع إرفاق ملفات
  • لا تستطيع تعديل مشاركاتك
  •