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There is more similiarity between route-map (using match ip address/match ip address prefix-list) and 'distribut-list in' than with 'distribute-list out'. With both, you can filter the unwanted routes at the point of redistribution into the destination routing protocol.
'Distribute-list out' tells the source routing protocol not to forward the route in the first place, while route-map filters the route after it has been forwarded and is at the destination router and routing protocol.
Route-map is more granular than distribute-list out; distribute list affects all routers connected to a given interface or a particular routing protocol (depending on how it is applied), but route-map only affects the routing protocol on which it is configured.
There are many other differences, others in this group will be able to contribute